Academic Writing in English-Different Kinds of Sources

Academic Writing in English-Different Kinds of Sources

Supply and guide

The origin could be the text or any other work providing you with the information and knowledge that is getting used (whereas the mention that is actual of supply that is used is named a guide). These terms are synonymous; in several reference styles, the list of sources used in an academic text are called ‘References,’ for instance to some extent.

When talking about the real purpose of the guide into the written text, nevertheless, it may possibly be beneficial to differentiate between the terms ‘source’ and ‘reference’.

Example: Difference between reference and source( simply click to expand/contract)

The sources that have been used are identified, as well as the references that are provided in the following two examples.

The extract that is first from a seminar paper in neuro-scientific Theology and Religious Studies. The guide offered let me reveal by means of a way up to a passage that is biblical and also the source (this is certainly, where in fact the passage quoted is usually to be discovered), may be the brand New Testament Book of Matthew.

At the start of all the four Gospels we meet a person whom challenges us to have baptized: John the Baptist. Within the Gospel of Matthew he cries away: “Repent! The kingdom of paradise is near” (Matth. 3:2).

The 2nd instance comes from the Master’s degree dissertation in Computer Science about structured evaluating processes. Into the extract below, the guide is “Boehm (1976)”, while the supply is really a particular log article, compiled by Boehm and posted in 1976, the total information on that are offered when you look at the variety of sources.

In lots of projects, testing-related expenses count for as much as 50per cent of this software development cost that is total. Boehm (1976) argues why these big expenses stem from presenting evaluating far too late in the act, and that these expenses could possibly be lessened in case a defect might be detected and fixed in the stage that is same it really is introduced. This praxis needs good planning and a structured test plan.

To be able to utilize sources effortlessly as well as in a manner that is correct article writers needs to be in a position to recognize the type of every supply while the cause for utilizing it. By making clear to themselves what sort of use they make of various types of sources, article writers should be able to differentiate between their contribution that is own and argument expressed by the sources which are getting used.

It must be noted that the distinctions which are made below may be much more significant in some areas compared to other people. Pupils are encouraged to talk about the usage of sources due to their supervisors along with the library staff at their departmental library. Note, however, that every authors should be conscious of the significance of originality, when you look at the feeling of first-hand results, in scholarly writing.

How to pick sources

Among the learning that is central of university studies could be the power to evaluate information. When writing, students train their ability to choose whether a supply is acceptable and just how to utilize it.

The University Library is just a valuable resource for pupils looking for assistance regarding the selection of sources:

Popular scholarly publication types ( simply click to expand/contract)

Research writing is posted in a variety of kinds. Some typically common forms of magazines are right here. According to control, some magazines kinds tend to be more relevant and common than the others.

An anthology is an accumulation of texts ( or any other created works) for a certain subject that are published (or else presented) together.

Conference procedures

The quantity of documents that are posted associated with seminars is oftentimes known as procedures. This type of publication frequently is comprised of articles in line with the plenary lectures as well as on a number that is selected of documents.

Journal article

A write-up is really a text which has been posted in a log (periodical), mag or magazine. You can find different types of scholarly articles; aside from original essays (articles that current brand brand brand new, initial, research), you will find review articles, letters and editorials, as an example. Original essays could be divided in to, for example, methodological articles, theoretical articles and instance studies. For more info about different varieties of articles, start to see the AWELU section called

A monograph is just a text (frequently book-length, but may be a long article) that treats one certain topic.


A periodical is a log that is posted frequently (sporadically = ‘at regular periods’). The terms ‘journal’ and ‘periodical’ tend to be utilized synonymously.

Thesis / Dissertation

A thesis (dissertation) is a comprehensive research paper that is written as partial fulfilment of an degree that is academic. In guide designs, the abbreviations ‘Diss.’ or ‘Unpubl. Diss.’ could be used to determine dissertations within the guide list, unless they are posted in guide kind by way of a publishing business or college press.

Observe that reference style manuals that are most happen posted in america and therefore make use of the American English ‘dissertation’ for ‘doctoral dissertation,’ whereas the term ‘thesis’ or ‘doctoral thesis’ is much more typical in Uk English. Find out more about this in

Extra terms relating to book types:

Annotated version

The phrase annotation in ‘annotated version’ indicates that the written text was supplied with explanatory records, commentary or any other forms of additional product. It is typical in republications of old texts, for example. In the event that text is annotated, this is suggested within the name.

Editions / Reprints

Functions may go through a few editions and reprints. When it is reprinted, unless stated otherwise, no modifications are created to the writing it self, but an extra (3rd, etc.) version will suggest that the writing was updated or perhaps changed.

Main, secondary and sources that are tertiary

Sources may be split into three kinds, according to their proximity essay writer towards the topic of research:

Main sources

A main supply is normally a document or outcome that is being reported hand that is first. To put it differently, main sources are initial sources, perhaps maybe not interpretations produced by somebody else.

The next frequently work as primary sources:

  • works of fiction
  • diaries
  • interviews
  • formal documents, such as for instance census information and appropriate texts
  • things, such as for example archaeological findings
  • numeric information
  • corpora

Additional sources

Additional sources value, discuss or comment in the main supply, or on sources analogous towards the main supply this is certainly being analysed.

Listed below are types of such sources that are secondary

  • research articles
  • biographies
  • monographs

Tertiary sources

A tertiary supply is a supply that summarises or compiles facts and knowledge made by another person. Tertiary sources tend to be some type of assemblage of main and sources that are secondary. These are generally convenient for immediate access to summarised facts, not all sources that are part of this category are thought suited to scholarly writing. By way of example, most commonly it is maybe maybe maybe not appropriate to utilize compilations of facts in place of reading the initial sources. Consequently, pupils composing essays are recommended to consult their instructors regarding the suitability of employing tertiary sources inside their writing.

Sources that might be viewed as tertiary sources include:

  • textbooks
  • study gu >A note of care

It ought to be noted that the difference between main, additional and tertiary sources is perhaps perhaps not a hard and fast one. The text under scrutiny would be seen as a primary source, although it would be used as secondary source material under other circumstances for instance, in an analysis of an encyclopaedic article, that text would be regarded as a primary source, and in a review of a scholarly monograph.

Types of sources found in various procedures

Example: Bachelor’s level task in English ( simply simply click to expand/contract)

On her bachelor’s level task in English Literature (Faculty of Humanities), a learning student learned the notion of ‘otherness’ in Nadeem Aslam’s novel Maps for Lost Lovers.

The main supply because of this research ended up being the novel it self, and also the additional sources contained critical studies on post-colonialism as well as on the ideas of ‘race’ and ‘otherness,’ as well as articles speaking about the specific novel.

  • Bengtsson, M. (2008) Visualising otherness in Maps for Lost Lovers by Nadeem Aslam: Discussing othering in and through Literature (Bachelor level project). Lund University. Access degree essay (PDF)

Example: Master’s degree dissertation in Overseas developing and Management ( simply click to expand/contract)

In a master’s degree thesis in Overseas developing and Management (Faculty of Social Sciences), the main focus had been on water administration in Jordan.

The principal sources with this research contained a collection of interviews and team talks conducted on location in Jordan, and also the additional product consisted of studies on main problems such as for instance water need and water administration, for example, as well as on facets of development and gender.

  • Ellefsen, A. & Kolic, H. (2010). Allow it to rain: a research study of community-based water administration and rainwater harvesting in Bayoudah, Jordan. (Master thesis). Lund University, Lund. Access via LUP

by Francisco Hernández

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